Wednesday, 3 December 2014

Questions You Should Ask Your Web Design and Development Company

A nice first query to ask is, is your web-site optimized for search engines? Public facing sites will be indexed by search engines like Google, Yahoo & MSN & it is important that your web-site is found one time crawled. You ought to also use every opportunity to increase the frequency of your web-site being found & used. Optimized sites are sites that use lightweight cascading style sheet designs & proper Meta keywords & also do not use images in lieu of headings or text. There lots of techniques you can employ to help your pages reach high rankings in search engines & the small things can help a lot.

When you meet along with your web-site design & development company there's positive questions that you require to ask that lots of people forget. In the event that they can answer these questions properly, then chances you are in nice hands.

You ought to definitely find out from your web design & development company whether the application is being built specifically for your online application or whether you are getting 'off the shelf' programmed. Lots of companies are sold application under the impression that it's been made for their web-site. Some unscrupulous development firms will take off-the-shelf packaged application from another company & personalize it before building your web-site. Make positive you ask this query upfront so you know what you are paying for.

You also require to check that they follow best practices when building sites & programming web applications. Best practices are guidelines on how a task ought to be approached & executed. For example there's best practices for optimizing a web-site for search engines, instruction for developing HTML & code portions of a web-site. Best practices are there to accomplish several things. They give an industry standard model that everybody can follow, they encourage production of consistent results, discipline when working with a positive subject matter & they deter poor practices in coding & development. web design  

An key aspect & that is often overlooked is promotion. Getting your web-site indexed in Google is thing but there's lots of, lots of other ways that you can maximize your web-site earnings, popularity & visitors. You can make positive that your website's address is on important documents like letter heads & business cards. You could sponsor community events, have your web-site address on your company automobile & could also have free give-away & promotions. In case you require to go further then things like paid promotion, banner ads & pay-per-click promotion are proven to get targeted traffic to your site.

You also require to know it your web-site is going to require ongoing maintenance. The answer to this is usually yes as chances are you will require to alter contact details or content. You may even require a complete redesign & to add lots of pages & more content & perform optimizations to accomplish better search results.

Monday, 10 November 2014

UK Casinos Offer Excellent Bonus Cash

Receive a Bonus When You Sign Up
When you sign up at these UK casinos, most of the time you'll get some kind of a bonus when you sign up. Lots of of them will offer a bonus when you make the first deposit in to your account, while there's a few that offer a bonus of a few dollars to start playing on as well. Of coursework the huge bonuses are the ones that you get to match your deposit, as well as a number of them will match what you deposit.

Interested in betting online & making a small bit of money? Well, why not think about a number of the United Kingdom casinos out there? You'll find that there's lots of online casinos that are UK based where you can sign up & start having the betting time of your life. of the top drawing points is the excellent bonus money that is offered by these casinos, so let's take a closer look at the bonus money offered, & the way you can make positive that you get yours.

Making Positive you Get that Bonus Money
Of coursework you need to make positive that you get that bonus money, & now days there's some restrictions that need that you do some betting in order to actually walk away along with your bonus. You need to learn how to make wagers that will keep that bonus money in your account & possibly make you a bit more money, which is where the Casino Money Cow guide comes in. It can teach you how to get that bonus money without losing a bunch of money in the United Kingdom casinos.

How Much Can You Get?
So, wondering how much you can actually get from these bonuses? Well, it of coursework will be contingent on the casino. The bonuses that you get for signing up are usually on the small side. However, when you make your first deposit, you can get some nice bonuses. A number of these UK casinos will match 100% of the money that you deposit, up to $200, $300, & some even up to $500. This means that in the event you put $500 in your account, some will give you $500 as well, totaling $1000 in your account.

There is great bonus money up for grabs that you can get at UK casinos. You need to learn how to take advantage of it. With the right guide, you can start collecting bonuses & even winning more money on these online casino sites to walk away with some hefty profits.

How To Choose An Interior Designer Or Redecorator

What sorts of expert inside fashioners are accessible?

Have you knew about Interior redecorators? These expert inner part decorators change your home utilizing things you have gathered through the years. The deciding result is an adjusted, amicable space that reflects the identity of the individuals who use it. Numerous inside originators have added this administration to their collection. Exchange terms for expert inner part fashioners having some expertise in inside redesigning are inside redesigners, inner part arrangers, inner part beauticians, one day decorators, visual organizers or inner part refiners.

What is a Certified Interior Designer? (from B&p Code Section 5800,5538)

A Certified inner part creator is a skilled configuration proficient who is qualified to plan, get ready, and submit any sort of nonstructural, non-seismic inside development arrangements and determinations to nearby building divisions. Affirmed inside planners have exhibited through training, knowledge, and examination their insight into the Uniform Building Code as it identifies with space arranging, life security, combustibility, and handicapped access code issues. Most inner part creators have a base four-year instruction. Numerous have Master of Interior Design degrees or other extra instruction in building design or inner part plan. Inner part planners who have numerous years experience might not have a Bachelors in Interior Design, yet normally are generally instructed and have numerous years of qualified experience. All qualified inside architects will show that they have passed the NCIDQ (National Council for Interior Design Certification) examination and/or are enlisted/ affirmed/ authorized in their state.

How do Interior Decorators charge for their administrations?

Level Design Fee: The customer pays a level charge for the expert inside originator's administrations focused around the configuration arrangement, time needed, and extent of administrations.

Hourly Rate: The inner part decorator charges an arranged rate for every hour.

Cost Plus Method: Professional inner part planners charge a set rate on all stock acquired and tradesmen's administrations rendered.

Blended Method: The customer pays both a set rate on buys and a base outline charge for hourly rate.

For every square foot: This system is utilized particularly as a part of new development.

What to ask at the initially meeting:

o ask to see the inner part creator's portfolio, yet recollect that the plans reflect other individuals' tastes,¬ not so much the inside decorator's, and perhaps not your own.

o ask what size tasks the inside architect has taken a shot at, where, and what was the financial backing extent.

o ask how the secured plan will be taken care of, and the sort of installment calendars the inside decorator requires.

o ask about the sorts of administrations the planner can give.

o ask for a rundown of references.

What you may be asked at the initially meeting:

It is a decent thought to plan for your initially meeting with an expert inner part creator by making your own particular organizer of clippings from magazines, inventories, and books of outline thoughts that engage you.

You might likewise be solicited some or all from the accompanying inquiries:

o for whom is the space being composed?

o what exercises will occur in the space?

o how long do you want to possess the space?

o what is your time span for finishing the undertaking?

o what is your financial plan?

o are you moving or renovating?

o what picture would you like to extend?

o what shades, style, and impacts do you like?

o what are your goal and way of life needs?

o what is the rough square footage to be planned?

In the event that an expert inside architect, or anybody, besides, lets you know the procedure is simple, anxiety free, and will be finished in two weeks, they're either lying or inept. Don't enlist that individual

Textile Designing

Here, we will talk about These steps towards magnificence in design. Style outlining specialists temper design into alluring, shrewd and agreeable closets for single person. Style planning experts ace the craft of styling and the claim to fame is picture makeover in understanding to the monetary allowance. There are counseling organizations which works in material and garments field. Today the design business is always in advancement and individuals demands examination for all sort of perspectives identified with inventiveness, arranging and creation all together included alongside the methods towards the settled business objective. Essentially, design planner advisors offer their administrations in the accompanying zones - Creativity, Textile, Cloth inspecting and Production, promoting and Commercial system.

The Textile architect advisors have some expertise in new and creative material configuration ideas for the new form gauges. The material outlining consultancy incorporates furnishing producers with material outline ideas, which can be joined in their own particular house creation. Design administrations incorporates Textile outline administrations which includes assembling of extras, woven fabric configuration, color advancement, yarn outlining, woven fabric plan, styling and presentation. Material configuration administrations incorporate far reaching business sector information. Design planning and material advisors are in fact proficient with outline, advertising and deals mastery.

The material configuration studio bargains in outlining of fabrics to styling of made ups to stand show and outline. They have the complete outlining answer for any fare house and the extensive variety of items that these experts offer. The primary working range of planner studio is material outlining. They likewise help the customer with redress at our material planning studio, if amid the execution of the same.

Discover What the Pros Do to Win Money Betting on Sports

Betting fanatics would one time must depend on "bookies" to place bets for them. Obviously, bookies weren't always available to choose up the phone & the betting opportunities were minimal. These days, the net has solved these difficulties.

Online betting is becoming increasingly widely used & individuals who love betting are now able to place sports bets online with ease. Using the net to place sports bets is a very simple thing to do. Today they go over what the professionals do in order to make actual money from web based sports betting.

You are no doubt excited to learn the answer to the query, "How DO the professionals make their profits online"?

Bettors today have a variety of betting opportunities. Better yet, online betting offers much better odds. Wagering online has a huge number of benefits.

They will eagerly select the bets that they feel offer value, while constantly knowing that not each bet will be a success. They choose bets that will, on average, make them money.

Plenty of professional online sports bettors start by seeking out the most effective place for their money, in much the same way that professional stock brokers would hunt out valuable stocks. They try to find excellent odds that are "off" by a bit & would be highly profitable long-term.

They in no way ignore the fact that chance will continually be at play in every bet, but they require a bet that will give them a longterm statistical edge.

Betting on the net boosts your chances of getting these odds since there's a huge number of betting prospects. Not are you able to make bets on which sports team you like, but also on a lot of "prop" bets. Prop bets give you an ability to bet on one-of-a-kind aspects of the game in lieu of basically who wins or loses.

There's limitless of these kinds of bets online that you can usually come across odds that haven't been set correctly. Expert online gamblers are continually looking out for chances like that.

Prosperous sports bettors will additionally take full advantage of the signup bonuses that the web-based sportsbooks supply. Sportsbooks will supply money bonuses so that they can get new users - this winds up being more money in your bankroll. The gains from these bonuses can figure to tens of thousands of dollars.

Online sports betting will only continue to advance as the competition gets hotter & the industry develops. That is a great thing, because in case you know what you are doing, you will have the chance to make much more money.

Saturday, 8 November 2014

Custom Web Site Design Strategies

Site outline has unquestionably, in the previous decade, advanced massively. More customers now are requesting hand craft, instead of the 'treat cutter' destinations of yesteryear.

Where once there existed a limit as to the sorts of text styles utilized, the sorts of coding dialects utilized, and the styles themselves, there is presently the likelihood for more mixture in Web webpage outline than at any other time. This has come to fruition in view of the advances in innovation that did not exist even a couple of years back, and it has opened up numerous innovative boulevards for Web webpage planners in the making of specially crafts.

Web advancement in general, must be more aggressive, and contemplate the needs of customers now, when actually billions of Web destinations seek consideration online every day. A Web webpage is the early introduction the manager of an E-trade business makes all alone potential customers, and the opposition component, has now prompted the blossoming of more inventive outlines and executions to manage this rival element.

Web advancement now needs to identify with the needs not just of the customers that are building the Web webpage, however the needs of the guests who are, generally "potential prospects' of the Web website managers.

E-trade needs have made some somewhat remarkable methodologies to Web improvement, from the most wonderful to the most ostentatious, shockingly. While trying to have their E-trade locales 'recognized', a few entrepreneurs have gotten to be excessively individualistic, and there does flourish numerous destinations that are not effortlessly traversable, nor particularly satisfying to the eye. A Web architect needs to utilize great judgment when settling on decisions about the amount is 'excessively' distinction.

Site fashioners can maintain a strategic distance from the pitfalls of getting to be excessively innovative, but then do much now to make a customer's site, extremely engaging and eye-discovering by remembering a couple of basic guidelines:

A. Are the colors satisfying to most guests, without being pompous and hard to view?

B. Are the text styles effortlessly perused by most guests, which implies not very extensive (an excessive amount of scrolling), or excessively little, (a lot of squinting)?

C. Is the route and convenience of the site what it can be? Can guests discover emphasizes effortlessly?

D. Is the site clean and uncluttered? It ought to never resemble your grandma's upper room, where thirty years of garbage possesses large amounts of each corner!

In the meantime, the E-trade usefulness can be kept up with cutting edge inventiveness, as traversability and convenience can be executed impeccably additionally. The new advances in engineering now have prompted the accompanying changes that build the capacity to enhance innovativeness:

1. A stunning number of text dimensions that can be immaculately actualized to recognize a site. Up until simply a couple of years prior, Web experts were restricted in the decision of textual styles, and text dimensions. Times New Roman and Arial were the two standard textual styles utilized, as a few programs couldn't viably show different textual styles with any dependability, changing textual styles that were not Times New Roman and Arial into the Sans Serif, which is not all that alluring. This was a huge hindrance to the innovative utilization of textual styles. With new inserting advances, this is no more a true issue, and numerous planners are presently utilizing incredible new textual styles that make a site 'emerge' easily.

2. Unique designs can be all the more effortlessly executed because of the development of CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) engineering. Preceding CSS, it took much work (and consequently much cash) to make plans with "punch" as every outline requested hours upon hours of work with HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), the old standard for composing and making hand crafts. CSS has liberated Web originators from these confinements, and obviously, spares customers a lot of cash used on man hours, heading more customers to request extraordinary looking specially crafts.

3. Route and ease of use have likewise expanded, once the confinements were lifted from the creation and advancement of custom destinations. Strangely, for reasons unknown, numerous years back, it was thought 'basic learning' that all destinations ought to contain a left-hand route bar, and nothing else. This was the old standard that creators had utilized for a considerable length of time and nobody thought to question this practice. This offered ascent to destinations that were generally 'treat cutter' mixed bags, each one having the same standard design and left-hand route bar format. Innovative utilization of right-hand route bars and different procedures have made destinations that are really distinctive in format and route than the old measures, and this has not turned out to be a disadvantage for most E-trade organizations. Indeed, uniqueness is by all accounts more essential, and may surely be an aggressive edge in itself.

4. The rise of WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) HTML advances has opened up an entire new universe of inventive text styles, innovative color plans, and imaginative designs. With WYSIWYG, originators can see precisely how a site will seem all through the methodology, killing a significant part of the drawn out experimentation that went before this. Indeed tenderfoot architects and those that try to make their own particular webpage can advantage from WYSIWYG, as most Web website creation programming and online locales utilized for Web webpage configuration consolidates this engineering, which is not difficult to use for just about anybody and obliges no coding dialect learning.

5. Better blaze systems have additionally been found and utilized in the past a few years, prompting more prominent viability of glimmer destinations, and speedier transfer speeds (an issue with blaze preceding the innovative advances was moderate stacking). Locales that utilize streak now have a more expert look and feel to them, and glimmer is utilized regularly now as a part of the development of online features and amusements that show up on destinations and teaches and captivates guests.

The previous decade in engineering has in reality fit the rise of unrivaled inventiveness in Web website outline and Web advancement by Web aces. Gone are the days of yore of stagnantly composed destinations, the

Monday, 1 September 2014

The Three Day Potty Training

The 3 day potty training or Intensive toilet training methods have become increasingly popular due to the demands of modern living and parent's time. Often, parents have to "schedule" time to take care of teaching this essential skill to their toddler. The benefits of using an intensive method far outweigh the drawbacks in trying to "let it take care of itself" and responsible parenthood requires taking the time.

I used Carol Cline's 3 day potty training method and found it simple to understand, implement and very useful. It was a successful method for us and I wrote the following article as a guide for parents who are considering using this method. It is simply a quick overview of what the book covers, chapter by chapter, so you can have an idea of what kind of content is in the book before you buy.

The book describes how to potty train in 3 days. It is 136 pages long and can easily be read in a few hours. I would imagine that the book is engagingly read by all parents about to embark on toilet training toddlers. However, Carol Cline intersperses the methodology with an historical overview of the process and general advice, gained from experience, of what to expect from your toddler during this time and also what you may experience yourself.

Chapter 1: The first chapter debunks the modern myth that children can toilet train themselves and that the later parents leave it to toilet train their children, the easier it will be. Children are potty trained later in the USA and Canada than in most of the world. She promotes a potty training method that is child centred and caring; but one that is also consistent and achieves results. Her belief is that potty training is a mutual achievement between the child and the parent and will deepen the relationship between them. This premise is carried throughout the book.

Chapter 2: This chapter sets out what is the best age to start potty training and includes guidelines for potty training toddlers aged between 18-24 months old with specific advice for parents who are trying to potty train older children.

Chapter 3: The key to successful potty training is knowing when your child is ready. This chapter goes into detail on the potty training readiness signs so you will know when the best time to start potty training your child is.

Chapter 4: Believe it or not, you need to prepare yourself first and then prepare your child. This chapter takes you through the necessity of relaxing through the process, how to handle your own expectations, what you should expect using the method, what to do and what not to do.

Chapter 5: This chapter takes you from your own expectations and the "adult mind" into the mind of your child so you can prepare them for their journey ahead. It explains the sequence of how children learn which helps you know what's going on. It also details what you can do beforehand to make the learning process easier e.g. taking "no-pressure" potty breaks before you actually start training so your child starts to become familiar with the process.

Chapter 6 and 7: These chapters take you step-by-step through what you need to have done before you start your "potty training in 3 days method" from clearing your schedule to the best foods to buy at the supermarket.

Chapter 8: This is the heart of the book. The pre-potty training "work" in the preceding chapters is not onerous and if the advice in them is followed, you will have done a lot of preparation that will reap rewards on your potty training days. The method is not set in stone but can be adapted to suit your family situation and needs. However, it does emphasise the need to be persistent, consistent, patient, loving and staying positive. It is a method that works with your child and treats them kindly throughout the process. It is a child centered approach that refocuses the adult mind into thinking of the world of a child. One of the best things about this method is that Carol Cline describes a very simple tool to encourage your toddler to use the potty that avoids the perennial "no".

The chapter also includes advice about night time potty training and observations and insights from other parents who have used the method. I found the chapter very, very useful - not least because of the methodology itself. It walks you through what you should expect, how you may feel, what to do if it goes badly and even what to do if it goes well!

Chapter 9: This chapter is a surprise inclusion. For those of us who are a little "rusty" on biology 101, this is the chapter to read! It is a basic biology lesson on our bodily functions. It then gives advice and guidance on how to ensure children adopt a healthy urination and bowel movement pattern.

Chapter 10: This is the chapter where Carol Cline leads you past thinking in terms of just potty training at home. It details how to approach potty training with your child's entire development and social situation in mind. As such it extends to teaching your child how to wipe their bum (with a novel system that won't block your plumbing with toilet paper) and how to wash their hands. At the end of the chapter, you won't be thinking about your child as a potty training toddler but as a "big kid" able to handle himself at kindergarten and pre-school.

Chapter 11: If you are about to start potty training a boy, a girl or twins this chapter will prove invaluable. It dismisses some of the myths and re-inforces the belief that every child is an individual. It deals with some typical obstacles and how to get past them in a positive way. If potty training has not worked for you in the past, or if you have a particularly stubborn child, then Carol Cline provides some very good adaptations to the method to cope with this situation. From the child's perspective, Carol Cline again puts you in their shoes and deals with some common fears your child may have and how to deal with them. I found the part on incentives and rewards particularly useful and it is something that I have put into practice in other areas of my parenting.

Chapter 12: Parents of children with Autism, Asperger's and Down Syndrome face particular challenges in trying to potty train. The chapter deals with these issues and covers area such as language issues, sensory problems, the stress of learning a new skill and visual aids to potty training. It also includes some observations and advice from parents who have been through and are going through a similar situation.

Chapter 13: This covers in a little more detail the "bumps in the road" and how to respond to them in a positive way.

Chapter 14: It may be that you feel that your child may have a medical problem and this chapter points you in the right direction on how to recognise it and what to do about it.

Chapter 15: "Out in the world" is the title of this chapter and this is where you will spend most of your time with your potty training toddler! It covers everything from going to the mall and on long haul flights; what to bring and suggestions for how to explain to your toddler about "special situations". Like any parent, I found planning trips and outings more stressful than I would like in the beginning and Carol Cline puts it into perspective so you can emerge from a trip to the mall having enjoyed yourself rather than making potty training the centre of your world.

In order to gain the most from the book, I would suggest purchasing it a month before you plan to potty train. You will have the time to read the book a few times and really absorb the methodology. This makes it easier to "get ahead" on the practical stuff like clearing your schedule and getting everything organised.

Monday, 11 August 2014


From Wikipedia, the free reference book

For different utilization, see Decimal (disambiguation).

The world's most punctual decimal increase table was produced using bamboo slips, dating from 305 BC, amid the Warring States period

This article needs extra references for confirmation. It would be ideal if you help enhance this article by adding references to dependable sources. Unsourced material may be tested and evacuated. (January 2011)

This article means to be an open presentation. For the numerical definition, see Decimal representation.

Numeral frameworks

by society

Hindu–arabic beginnings

Indian Bengali Tamil Telugu

Eastern Arabic Western Arabic

Burmese Khmer Lao Mongolian

Sinhala Thai

East Asian

Chinese Suzhou Japanese Korean Vietnamese

Tallying poles


Abjad Armenian Āryabhaṭa Cyrillic

Ge'ez Georgian Greek Hebrew Roman


Aegean Attic Babylonian Brahmi

Egyptian Etruscan Inuit Kharosthi

Mayan Quipu


Positional frameworks by base

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 24 26 27 32 36 60

Non-standard positional frameworks

Arrangement of numeral frameworks

v t e

The decimal numeral framework (likewise called base ten or every so often denary) has ten as its base. It is the numerical base most broadly utilized by advanced civilizations.[1][2]

Decimal documentation regularly alludes to a base-10 positional documentation, for example, the Hindu-Arabic numeral framework; then again, it can additionally be utilized all the more for the most part to allude to non-positional frameworks, for example, Roman or Chinese numerals which are likewise focused around forces of ten.

Decimals likewise allude to decimal parts, either independently or rather than foul portions. In this connection, a decimal is a tenth part, and decimals turn into an arrangement of settled tenths. There was a documentation being used like 'tenth-meter', significance the tenth decimal of the meter, at present an Angstrom. The difference here is in the middle of decimals and revolting divisions, and decimal divisions and different divisions of measures, in the same way as the inch. It is conceivable to take after a decimal extension with a revolting division; this is finished with the late divisions of the troy ounce, which has three spots of decimals, emulated by a trinary place.

Substance  [hide]

1 Decimal documentation

1.1 Decimal divisions

1.2 Other objective numbers

1.3 Real numbers

1.4 Non-uniqueness of decimal representation

2 Decimal reckoning

3 History

3.1 History of decimal divisions

3.2 Natural dialects

3.3 Other bases

4 See likewise

5 References

6 External connec

Decimal notation

Decimal documentation is the composition of numbers in a base-10 numeral framework. Illustrations are Greek numerals, Roman numerals, Brahmi numerals, and Chinese numerals, and additionally the Hindu-Arabic numerals utilized by speakers of numerous European dialects. Roman numerals have images for the decimal powers (1, 10, 100, 1000) and optional images for a large portion of these qualities (5, 50, 500). Brahmi numerals have images for the nine numbers 1–9, the nine decades 10–90, or more an image for 100 and an alternate for 1000. Chinese numerals have images for 1–9, and extra images for forces of 10, which in current use achieve 1044.

Nonetheless, when individuals who use Hindu-Arabic numerals discuss decimal documentation, they frequently mean decimal numeration, as above, as well as decimal parts, all passed on as a major aspect of a positional framework. Positional decimal frameworks incorporate a zero and utilization images (called digits) for the ten values (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) to speak to any number, regardless of how extensive or how little. These digits are regularly utilized with a decimal separator which demonstrates the begin of a fragmentary part, and with an image, for example, the in addition to sign + (for positive) or less sign − (for negative) nearby the numeral to demonstrate whether it is more prominent or short of what zero, individually.

Positional documentation utilization positions for each one force of ten: units, tens, hundreds, thousands, and so forth. The position of every digit inside a number indicates the multiplier (force of ten) reproduced with that digit—each one position has an esteem ten times that of the position to its correct. There were no less than two probably free wellsprings of positional decimal frameworks in aged progress: the Chinese checking pole framework and the Hindu-Arabic numeral framework (the recent slipped from Brahmi numerals).

Ten fingers on two hands, the conceivable beginning stage of the decimal tallying.

Ten is the number which is the tally of fingers and thumbs on both hands (or toes on the feet). The English word digit and also its interpretation in numerous dialects is additionally the anatomical term for fingers and toes. In English, decimal (decimus < Lat.) implies tenth, annihilate means diminish by a tenth, and denary (denarius < Lat.) implies the unit of ten.

The images for the digits in as something to be shared use around the globe today are called Arabic numerals by Europeans and Indian numerals by Arabs, the two bunches' terms both alluding to the society from which they took in the framework. Notwithstanding, the images utilized within distinctive territories are not indistinguishable; for example, Western Arabic numerals (from which the European numerals are inferred) vary from the structures utilized by other Arab societies.

Decimal fractions[edit]

A decimal portion is a small amount of the denominator of which is a force of ten.[3]

Decimal portions are regularly communicated without a denominator, the decimal separator being embedded into the numerator (with heading zeros included if necessary) at the position from the right relating to the force of ten of the denominator; e.g., 8/10, 83/100, 83/1000, and 8/10000 are communicated as 0.8, 0.83, 0.083, and 0.0008. In English-talking, some Latin American and numerous Asian nations, a period (.) or raised period (·) is utilized as the decimal separator; in numerous different nations, especially in Europe, a comma (,) is utilized.

The whole number part, or essential piece of a decimal number is the part to the left of the decimal separator. (See additionally truncation.) The part from the decimal separator to the right is the fragmentary part. It is typical for a decimal number that comprises just of a fragmentary part (numerically, a fitting portion) to have a heading focus in its documentation (its numeral). This helps disambiguation between a decimal sign and other accentuation, and particularly when the negative number sign is demonstrated, it aides picture the indication of the numeral all in all.

Trailing zeros after the decimal point are not essential, albeit in science, designing and facts they might be held to demonstrate an obliged accuracy or to demonstrate a level of trust in the precision of the number: Although 0.080 and 0.08 are numerically equivalent, in building 0.080 recommends an estimation with a blunder of up to one section in two thousand (±0.0005), while 0.08 proposes an estimation with a mistake of up to one in two hundred (see noteworthy figures).

Other balanced numbers[edit]

Any balanced number with a denominator whose just prime components are 2 and/or 5 may be exactly communicated as a decimal portion and has a limited decimal expansion.[4]

1/2 = 0.5

1/20 = 0.05

1/5 = 0.2

1/50 = 0.02

1/4 = 0.25

1/40 = 0.025

1/25 = 0.04

1/8 = 0.125

1/125 = 0.008

1/10 = 0.1

In the event that the levelheaded number's denominator has any prime variables other than 2 or 5, it can't be communicated as a limited decimal fraction,[4] and has a special in the long run rehashing endless decimal extension.

1/3 = 0.333333…  (with 3 rehashing)

1/9 = 0.111111…  (with 1 rehashing)

100 − 1 = 99 = 9 × 11:

1/11 = 0.090909…

1000 − 1 = 9 × 111 = 27 × 37:

1/27 = 0.037037037…

1/37 = 0.027027027…

1/111 = 0 .009009009…


1/81 = 0.012345679012…  (with 012345679 rehashing)

That a balanced number must have a limited or repeating decimal extension might be seen to be a result of the long division calculation, in that there are just q-1 conceivable nonzero remnants on division by q, so the repeating example will have a period short of what q. For example, to discover 3/7 by long division:

0.4 2 8 5 7 1 4 ...

7 ) 3.0 0

2 8  30/7 = 4 with a rest of 2

2 0

1 4  20/7 = 2 with a rest of 6

6 0

5 6  60/7 = 8 with a rest of 4

4 0

3 5  40/7 = 5 with a rest of 5

5 0

4 9  50/7 = 7 with a rest of 1


Decimal computation

Decimal computation was carried out in ancient times in lots of ways, usually in rod calculus, with decimal multiplication table used in ancient China & with sand tables in India & Middle East or with a variety of abaci.

Modern computer hardware & application systems often use a binary representation internally (although lots of early computers, such as the ENIAC or the IBM 650, used decimal representation internally).[5] For outside use by computer specialists, this binary representation is sometimes introduced in the related octal or hexadecimal systems.

For most purposes, however, binary values are converted to or from the equivalent decimal values for presentation to or input from humans; computer programs express literals in decimal by default. (123.1, for example, is written as such in a computer program, although lots of computer languages are unable to encode that number exactly.)

Both computer hardware & application also use internal representations which are effectively decimal for storing decimal values & doing arithmetic. Often this arithmetic is done on information which are encoded using some variant of binary-coded decimal,[6] in database implementations, but there's other decimal representations in use (such as in the new IEEE 754 Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic).[7]

Decimal arithmetic is used in computers so that decimal fractional results can be computed exactly, which is impossible using a binary fractional representation. This is often important for financial & other calculations.[8]


Many ancient cultures calculated from early on with numerals based on ten: Egyptian hieroglyphs, in evidence since around 3000 BC, used a purely decimal system,[9][10] just as the Cretan hieroglyphs (ca. 1625−1500 BC) of the Minoans whose numerals are closely based on the Egyptian model.[11][12] The decimal system was handed down to the consecutive Bronze Age cultures of Greece, including Linear A (ca. 18th century BC−1450 BC) and Linear B (ca. 1375−1200 BC) — the number system of classical Greece also used powers of ten, including, like the Roman numerals did, an intermediate base of 5.[13] Notably, the polymath Archimedes (c. 287–212 BC) invented a decimal positional system in his Sand Reckoner which was based on 108[13] and later led the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss to lament what heights science would have already reached in his days if Archimedes had fully realized the potential of his ingenious discovery.[14] The Hittites hieroglyphs (since 15th century BC), just like the Egyptian and early numerals in Greece, was strictly decimal.[15]

The Egyptian hieratic numerals, the Greek alphabet numerals, the Roman numerals, the Chinese numerals and early Indian Brahmi numerals are all non-positional decimal systems, and required large numbers of symbols. For instance, Egyptian numerals used different symbols for 10, 20, to 90, 100, 200, to 900, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, to 10,000.[16]

History of decimal fractions[edit]

counting rod decimal fraction 1/7
According to Joseph Needham, decimal fractions were first developed and used by the Chinese in the 1st century BC, and then spread to the Middle East and from there to Europe.[17] The written Chinese decimal fractions were non-positional.[17] However, counting rod fractions were positional.

Qin Jiushao in his book Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections (1247) denoted 0.96644 by

Counting rod 0.pngCounting rod h9 num.pngCounting rod v6.pngCounting rod h6.pngCounting rod v4.pngCounting rod h4.png, meaning


The Jewish mathematician Immanuel Bonfils invented decimal fractions around 1350, anticipating Simon Stevin, but did not develop any notation to represent them.[19]

The Persian mathematician Jamshīd al-Kāshī claimed to have discovered decimal fractions himself in the 15th century, though J. Lennart Berggren notes that positional decimal fractions were used five centuries before him by Arab mathematician Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi as early as the 10th century.[20]

Khwarizmi introduced fractions to Islamic countries in the early 9th century. . This form of fraction with the numerator on top and the denominator on the bottom, without a horizontal bar, was also used in the 10th century by Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi and again in the 15th century work "Arithmetic Key" by Jamshīd al-Kāshī.[citation needed]

Stevin-decimal notation.svg
A forerunner of modern European decimal notation was introduced by Simon Stevin in the 16th century.[21]

Natural languages[edit]
Telugu language uses a straightforward decimal system. Other Dravidian languages such as Tamil and Malayalam have replaced the number nine tondu with 'onpattu' ("one to ten") during the early Middle Ages, while Telugu preserved the number nine as tommidi.

The Hungarian language also uses a straightforward decimal system. All numbers between 10 and 20 are formed regularly (e.g. 11 is expressed as "tízenegy" literally "one on ten"), as with those between 20-100 (23 as "huszonhárom" = "three on twenty").

A straightforward decimal rank system with a word for each order 10十,100百,1000千,10000万, and in which 11 is expressed as ten-one and 23 as two-ten-three, and 89345 is expressed as 8 (ten thousands) 万9 (thousand) 千3 (hundred) 百4 (tens) 十 5 is found in Chinese languages, and in Vietnamese with a few irregularities. Japanese, Korean, and Thai have imported the Chinese decimal system. Many other languages with a decimal system have special words for the numbers between 10 and 20, and decades. For example in English 11 is "eleven" not "ten-one".

Incan languages such as Quechua and Aymara have an almost straightforward decimal system, in which 11 is expressed as ten with one and 23 as two-ten with three.

Some psychologists suggest irregularities of the English names of numerals may hinder children's counting ability.[22]

Other bases[edit]
Some cultures do, or did, use other bases of numbers.

Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures such as the Maya used a base-20 system (using all twenty fingers and toes).
The Yuki language in California and the Pamean languages[23] in Mexico have octal (base-8) systems because the speakers count using the spaces between their fingers rather than the fingers themselves.[24]
The existence of a non-decimal base in the earliest traces of the Germanic languages, is attested by the presence of words and glosses meaning that the count is in decimal (cognates to ten-count or tenty-wise), such would be expected if normal counting is not decimal, and unusual if it were.[improper synthesis?] Where this counting system is known, it is based on the long hundred of 120 in number, and a long thousand of 1200 in number. The descriptions like 'long' only appear after the small hundred of 100 in number appeared with the Christians. Gordon's Introduction to Old Norse p 293, gives number names that belong to this system. An expression cognate to 'one hundred and eighty' is translated to 200, and the cognate to 'two hundred' is translated at 240. Goodare details the use of the long hundred in Scotland in the Middle Ages, giving examples, calculations where the carry implies i C (i.e. one hundred) as 120, etc. That the general population were not alarmed to encounter such numbers suggests common enough use. It is also possible to avoid hundred-like numbers by using intermediate units, such as stones and pounds, rather than a long count of pounds. Goodare gives examples of numbers like vii score, where one avoids the hundred by using extended scores. There is also a paper by W.H. Stevenson, on 'Long Hundred and its uses in England'.[citation needed]
Many or all of the Chumashan languages originally used a base-4 counting system, in which the names for numbers were structured according to multiples of 4 and 16.[25]
Many languages[26] use quinary (base-5) number systems, including Gumatj, Nunggubuyu,[27] Kuurn Kopan Noot[28] and Saraveca. Of these, Gumatj is the only true 5–25 language known, in which 25 is the higher group of 5.
Some Nigerians use base-12 systems.[29]
The Huli language of Papua New Guinea is reported to have base-15 numbers.[30] Ngui means 15, ngui ki means 15×2 = 30, and ngui ngui means 15×15 = 225.
Umbu-Ungu, also known as Kakoli, is reported to have base-24 numbers.[31] Tokapu means 24, tokapu talu means 24×2 = 48, and tokapu tokapu means 24×24 = 576.
Ngiti is reported to have a base-32 number system with base-4 cycles.[26]